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Print | Close Description of the Phases

In the following section, the phases and their focus areas are described in detail.

Initiation

Initiation sets the scene. It ensures that all the project objectives are in line with the objectives and strategies of the organization. The project foundations and the project charter are produced, and a decision is made to release the project.

  • Based on the project initiation order, the project sponsor releases the resources for the Initiation phase. He or she commissions a project manager to carry out the Initiation phase.
  • A study is conducted, including a situation analysis, objectives, and major requirements, and the options are produced. The options must be described in sufficient detail to be clear and transparent. Among other things, the project risks and the operational risks are determined and the legal framework and protection needs are analyzed. This information is used in decision-making. A decision is made regarding the option to be chosen.
  • Based on the option chosen, the project management plan and the project charter are produced and aligned with the strategies, requirements, and overall objectives of the core organization. Stakeholder interests are analyzed and conflicts with objectives resolved.
  • The decision to release the project is made and the project charter is signed. The release is handled by the core organization and the project sponsor.

At the end of the Initiation phase, it needs to be determined whether it is appropriate to release the project or not. A project may be terminated if it is deemed economically unsound, too risky, too difficult to implement, or if it is not in line with the objectives and strategies of the organization.

Concept

The option chosen in the Initiation phase is now specified. The outcomes must be described in sufficient detail to enable those involved in the project to plan, offer, and implement the product or the IT system, based on reliable foundations.

  • The requirements are specified and completed. The concept is designed on the basis of the option that has been chosen. Thus, feasibility, for example, is evaluated by means of prototypes.
  • To prepare for deployment, a deployment concept is designed.
  • Depending on the scenario, a test concept and a migration concept are designed.
  • In the case of IT projects, the concept for the organizational structure, the system concept, and the operating concept are designed. A decision is made regarding the system architecture to be used.
  • If it is necessary to procure a product or an IT system, procurement takes places in this phase. Following this, the integration concept is designed.
  • A decision regarding the implementation release is made. The resources for the next phase are released based on the details of the project management plan and the offers received. The project risks and the operational risks are identified, analyzed, and evaluated. The feasibility of the project must be established.

At the end of the Concept phase, it needs to be determined whether it is appropriate to implement the project. A project may be terminated if it is deemed economically unsound, too risky, too difficult to implement, or if it is not in line with the objectives and strategies of the organization.

Implementation

The product or the IT system is implemented and tested. The necessary preparations are made in order to minimize the deployment risks.

  • The product or the IT system is implemented. The organizational structure and the operating organization are implemented and the documentation produced.
  • In the case of an IT project, the IT is integrated into the operating infrastructure and the preliminary acceptance is approved.
  • Based on the deployment concept, deployment is prepared.
  • Depending on the scenario that has been chosen, tests are conducted and the migration is prepared.
  • A decision is made to release the deployment, based on the decision to approve the preliminary acceptance. Based on the details of the project management plan, the resources for the next phase are released.

At the end of the Implementation phase, the acceptable deployment risks must be assessed. These must be acceptable, otherwise deployment cannot take place.

Deployment

The safe transition from the previous to the new state is ensured. The operation is launched and the project provides support for as long as necessary until the operation is stable.

  • Deployment measures such as user training, etc., are taken.
  • The operation is prepared and the product or IT system, as well as the organizational and the operational structures are activated.
  • During the initial period of operation, the project supports the analysis and resolution of problems.
  • Depending on the scenario that has been chosen, a migration is conducted and the legacy system is decommissioned.
  • In the case of an IT project, the project results, the test systems, and the supporting materials are passed to the operating organization and to the maintenance organization.
  • Following deployment, once the operation has been launched successfully, and after the decision has been made to grant acceptance, the project is closed and the final project analysis is completed. Unresolved issues are passed to the core organization.

At the end of the Deployment phase, after the operation launch has been successful and after the decision has been made to grant the acceptance, the project is closed and the final project analysis is completed. Unresolved issues are passed to the core organization.

The project is closed and the project organization is dissolved.